Seamless pipe is produced by heating a round billet of steel and then piercing it with a bullet-shaped piercer, over which the steel is stretched.
Seamless pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.
Steel Pipe & Tubing seem similar at first blush and in fact they share many characteristics but they also have some important differences.
Steel Tubingis a hollow steel shape intended for structural purposes and made from carbon, stainless, or galvanized steel further divided as:
Mechanical Tubingis used in low stress applications such as fences, kitchens, restaurants, hospitals, solar panels and made with wall thicknesses up to 10 gauge.
Structural Tubingis for high stress structural application like bridges, buildings, roll cages, and underwater platforms with wall thickness from 3/16" and up. It is often referred to as Hollow Structural Sections or just the acronym HSS.
Pipeis a hollow structure that is intended to carry material such as liquids, gasses, or even solids. Its wall thickness is described by its Schedule and it is often broken down by type using the method of manufacturing it, either ERW or Seamless
Electric Resistance Welded,often abbreviated asERW, is a process that uses specific machinery to shape the pipe and tubing. A continuous steel sheet is unwound from a coil and shaped using contoured rollers, forcing the edges together under pressure. These edges are then welded together by heating the material to over 2,000 degrees. After welding, the pipe or tubing is cut into the exact size needed.
Seamless Pipe(and tubing) is made by extruding a steel block or by drilling a solid steel bar. Next, the extrusion or the drilled steel bar is cold drawn through a dye to achieve the diameter and thickness needed. Because this process can cause mechanical hardening, sometimes the material is annealed and straightened as a final process. Seamless Pipe & Tubing is subdivided as:
Cold Drawn Seamless, orCDS, exhibits precise tolerances and a good surface finish.
Hot Finished Seamless, orHFS, has less critical tolerances and somewhat scaly finish and is not as strong as CDS.
ForDrawn over Mandrel, ordomiden油管,第一阶段的制造tical to ones used to make electric resistance welded tubing, but in the finishing stages the entire flash weld is taken out and the tube is cold drawn over a mandrel. A mandrel is a round object against which material can be forged or shaped. The cold drawn process provides the tube with better dimensional tolerances, improved surface finish and the strongest weld strength achievable.
Pipe Size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers:
Both the size and schedule are required to accurately specify a particular piece of pipe.
Nominal Pipe Size（NP）是目前用于高压和低压和温度的管道的北美标准尺寸。进一步讨论在这里。
Schedule Numberfor wall thickness ranges from SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS (Extra Strong) AND XXS (Double Extra Strong).
BPE– Black Plain End Pipe
BTC– Black Threaded & Coupled
GTC– Galvanized Threaded & Coupled
脚趾– Threaded One End
Galvanized——覆盖保护锌涂层钢to prevent the material from rusting. The process can be hot-dip-galvanizing where the material is dipped in molten zinc or Electro-Galvanized where the steel sheet from which the pipe is made was galvanized during production by an electro-chemical reaction.
Uncoated– Uncoated Pipe
Black Coated– Coated with a dark colored iron-oxide
Red Primed– Red Oxide Primed used as a base coat for ferrous metals, gives iron and steel surfaces a layer of protection
Seamless pipes are derived from solid steel that is in sheet or bar form and is formed into a solid round shape known as “billets” which are then heated and cast over a form such as a piercing rod to create a hollow tube or shell.
SMLS pipe is produced by heating a round billet of steel and then piercing it with a bullet-shaped piercer, over which the steel is stretched. This is followed by rolling and drawing to produce the desired dimensions. The final product is hydrostatically tested, inspected, coated if required, and stenciled with the specification. SMLS pipe is used in high-pressure, most critical locations and under most severe operating conditions. SMLS pipe is supplied according to ASTM Specifications A53, A106, A333, A312, A358, etc., and API 5L pipe
Sizes: 1/8″ (3.175 mm) nominal to 26″ (660.4 mm) OD. Less than 2 3/8″ (60.325 mm) OD is known as pressure tubing that has different dimensional standards (wall thickness and diameter). SMLS pipe, where available, is used in oil and gas production facilities both onshore and offshore (other than transmission lines) less than 26″ (660.4 mm) OD.
Mills produce two types of line pipe, seamless and welded
Seamless pipe is formed from a cylindrical bar of steel. The bar is heated to a high temperature and then a probe is inserted to create a hole through the cylinder. The cylinder is then transferred to rollers which size the cylinder to the specified diameter and wall thickness. A few mills can produce seamless pipe up to 24-in in diameter. For small diameter pipe, seamless pipe is common but unit costs are high and availability is usually limited. As pipe diameter increases, welded pipes are more economical.
In welded pipe, welding is used to close the seam after forming a steel plate or coil into a cylindrical shape. The mill uses ultrasonic and/or radiological inspection methods to ensure the quality of the weld seam and initiates pressure tests on each joint of pipe to levels that exceed the proposed operating pressure. Welded pipe is classified based on how it is formed and the type of welding technique used.
Submerged arc weld (SAW) pipe uses filler metal in welding, whereas electric resistance welded/electric fusion welding (ERW/EFW) are no-filler metal processes. SAW is further classified into longitudinal (or straight) welding (L-SAW) and S-SAW means spiral (or helical) weld tube. Normally, medium diameter straight L-SAW has a single seam, and large diameter L-SAW uses a double seam.
PIPs are manufactured using two pipes separated by insulation and are used to maintain the temperature of the fluids to prevent the formation of hydrates, reduce wax deposition, or to reduce the pressure drop by reducing the viscosity of heavy crudes (Cochran, 2003).
Rigid flowlines are manufactured from carbon steel or a high-performance steel alloy, with additional coatings providing corrosion protection and insulation. Flexible flowlines have the same applications as rigid flowlines but are manufactured differently, using composite layers of steel wire and polymer sheathing that provide high flexibility (Box 1.3). A typical 8-in diameter flexible pipe, for example, can be safely bent to a radius of two meters or less. This flexibility is important for risers and flowlines laid on uneven seabeds and permits spooling on a reel or carousel in installation. The preference for using a rigid or flexible flowline is driven by design requirements, installation constraints, cost, schedule, and other factors.
A flexible pipe is a configurable product made up of several independent layers tailored to each development (Fig. 1.21). Flexible pipes are used for risers, flowlines, and jumpers in offshore operations, but because the unit cost is much more expensive than a carbon steel pipe, its use is often limited to special applications and small quantities (Tuohy et al., 2001).
Flexible pipe is manufactured by wrapping several intertwining layers of stainless steel and special polymers. The helically wound steel wires give the pipe its high-pressure resistance and bending characteristics, and since the steel wires are not in direct contact with the conveyed fluid, they do not require the same corrosion resistance as steel pipe. Variation in the choice of materials, the number and order of layers, and manufacturing process depends on the conditions and operating environment.
The components of an unbonded flexible pipe are as follows:
Carcass. The carcass forms the innermost layer and is the conduit for fluid transport. It is commonly made of a stainless steel flat strip that is spirally wound and formed into an interlocking profile. The main function of the carcass is to prevent pipe collapse due to hydrostatic pressure in the annulus.
Internal polymer sheath. The internal polymer sheath provides a barrier to maintain the bore fluid integrity. Common materials used include Polyamide-11 (Rilsan), high-density polyethylene, cross-linked polyethylene, and PVDF.
Pressure armor. The pressure armor, as its name implies, is wound around the internal polymer sheath for protection and is made of interlocking wires or wire strips. Its role is to withstand the hoop stress in the pipe wall caused by the fluid pressure.
Tensile armor. The tensile armor layers are used to resist tensile loads, to support the weight of all the pipe layers, and to transfer the load through the end fitting to the structure. The tensile armor layers are cross-wound in pairs and in high tension applications, say in a deepwater riser, may require the use of four tensile armor layers.
External polymer sheath. The main function of the external sheath is as a barrier against seawater and is often made of the same materials as the internal polymer sheath. External sheaths also provide protection against clashing with other objects during installation.
Other layers. Antifriction and antiwear tape are wound around the armor layers to reduce friction and wear of the wire layers when they rub past each other as the pipe flexes from external loads. Antiwear tapes are used to ensure that the armor layers maintain their wound shape and prevent the wires from twisting out of their configuration, a phenomenon called birdcaging that is a result of hydrostatic pressure causing axial compression in the pipe. Additional layers of material with low thermal conductivity can be applied to obtain specific thermal insulation properties.
Seamless steel pipe for the use of engineering and construction is very widely, it is a hollow steel strip no seams, it is mainly used to transport liquids pipelines, different look and general steel,one of those heavy type steel, it has a strong resistance to corrosion, resistant to general corrosion.
The mechanical properties of the seamless steel tube is a important indicator that ensure seamless pipe end-use properties (mechanical properties), which depends on the chemical composition and heat treatment of steel.
In steel standards, according to different requirements, it provide the tensile properties (tensile strength, yield strength or yield point elongation) and hardness.
① Tensile strength (σb)
During stretching, when pull off the bear most strongly (Fb), divided by the original cross-sectional area (So) from the stress (σ), known as the tensile strength (σb), units of N/mm2 (MPa). It said the maximum capacity resist destruction of metallic materials under tension.
② Yield point (σs)
③ Elongation (σ)
(4) Cross-section contraction rate (ψ)
In the tensile test, the percentage of the specimen fractured its shrink the diameter at the cross-sectional area of the maximum reduction and the original cross-sectional area is known as section shrinkage. Ψ expressed in%.
⑤ Hardness testing
Metallic materials against hard objects indentation of the surface, known as hardness. accoring to the test method and scope of application, the hardness can be divided into brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness, Vickers hardness, Shore hardness, hardness and high temperature hardness. Commonly used for pipe, Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers hardness of three kinds.
Cold Drawn Seamless Mechanical Tubing (CDS) is a cold drawn 1018/1026 steel tube which offers uniform tolerances, enhanced machinability and increased strength and tolerances compared to hot-rolled products.
Cold drawn steel tube is with hot-rolled steel coil as raw material, and tandem cold rolling pickled to remove oxide scale, its finished rolling hard roll, rolling hard volumes due to the continuous cold deformation caused by cold hardening strength, hardness increased indicators declined tough plastic, stamping performance will deteriorate, which can only be used for simple deformation of the parts.
Hot-rolled seamless steel pipe production base deformation process can be summarized as three stages: perforation, extension and finishing.
The main purpose of the perforation process is to become a solid round billet piercing hollow shell. Capillary in the specifications, accuracy and surface quality can not meet the requirements of the finished product, further improvements are needed to deform the metal through. The main purpose of the stretching machine is further reduced sectional view (main compression wall) for a larger axial extension, so that the capillary improved dimensional accuracy, surface quality and organizational performance.
After stretching machine rolled steel pipe shortage collectively need further molding mill in order to achieve the requirements of the finished pipe. Rolled steel due to pass in the method widely used in the production of seamless steel tubes.
So far, due to the method pass rolling steel can be divided into two categories: core pension without rolling rolling (hollow body rolling), and with the mandrel. Sizing machines, reducing mill and stretch reducing mill belonging to the hole without mandrel type continuous rolling mills are generally coffin. Its main purpose is to reduce the diameter of the deformation process or sizing get finished steel, the wall thickness of process control, can make thinning, thickening or nearly unchanged.
所有传统的孔型轧制机mandrel belong to extend machine. The main purpose is to reduce the deformation process perforated capillary wall thickness and outer diameter roll passes in the deformation zone and the mandrel posed, for a larger axial extension. At the same time a certain improvement in the organization, performance, accuracy, surface quality.
Before cutting pipe and tubing
No matter the material, measure the diameter of the pipe or tube to be cut to ensure that you use the right-size tube cutter for the job. When determining how to make a straight cut, use a tape measure and a pencil or other writing instrument to mark on the surface where you want to cut. If possible, mark around the circumference of a pipe, especially when cutting with a handsaw. Ensure that a cut is as straight as possible by securing the pipe with a vise, clamp, miter box or even duct tape to keep the length from shifting out of place while cutting.
After cutting pipe and tubing
Alloy steel pipes are ideally suitable for chemical, petrochemicals, and other energy-related applications.
The alloy steel pipe adopts high quality carbon steel, alloy structural steel and stainless & heat resisting steel as raw material through hot rolling or cold drawn to be made.
Alloy steel can be used in process area where carbon steel has limitation such as
As an important element of steel products, alloy steel pipe can be divided into seamless steel pipe and welded steel pipe according to the manufacturing technique and tube billet shape.
Here you can see the common alloy steel grade that you will come across.
Why the application of alloy steel pipe is wider than others
The transportation of kinds of gases or liquids in production needs to rely on alloy steel pipe. This shows that the actual role of alloy steel pipe application is important. High temperature resistant and low temperature resistant is the tolerance of temperature. In the practical application of alloy steel pipe, there will be many materials need to be transported. However their temperatures are not the same. So this can be the basic requirement to alloy steel pipe. It needs more corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistant material is the best material during transporting, because it is corrosion resistant. So it can be used in more occasions. And it is definitely very convenient for users.
可以100%回收,对环境友好,在吗ergy-saving, resource conservation, national strategy, national policy to encourage the expansion of the field of application of high-pressure alloy pipe. Of alloy steel pipe total consumption accounted steel in the proportion is only half of the developed countries, to expand the field of use of the alloy steel pipe to provide a wider space for the development of the industry. The future needs of the average annual growth of China’s high-pressure alloy steel pipe long products up to 10-12%.
Alloy Steel pipe contains substantial quantities of elements other than carbon such as nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium and limited amounts of other commonly accepted elements such as manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous.
Our team of experienced sales specialists proudly partners with gas and chemical processors, power generation plants, oil refineries, and related industries to offer piping components and value-added services.
The biggest advantages of alloy steel pipe可以100%回收,对环境友好,在吗ergy-saving, resource conservation, national strategy, national policy to encourage the expansion of the field of application of high-pressure alloy pipe. Of alloy tube total consumption accounted steel in the proportion is only half of the developed countries, to expand the field of use of the alloy tube to provide a wider space for the development of the industry. According to the Chinese Special Steel Association alloy pipe Branch Expert Group, the future needs of the average annual growth of China’s high-pressure alloy pipe long products up to 10-12%.
Chemical composition inspection, mechanical properties test(tensile strength,yield strength, elongation, flaring, flattening, bending, hardness, impact test), surface and dimension test,no-destructive test, hydrostatic test.
Steel pipe delivery status(condition): cold / hard (BK), cold / soft (BKW), after cold stress relief annealing (BKS), annealing (GBK), normalized (NBK).
|Cold-finished/hard (cold-finished as-drawn)||BK||No heat treatment after the last cold-forming process. The tubes therefore have only low deformability.|
|Cold-finished/soft (lightly cold-worked)||BKW||After the last heat treatment there is a light finishing pass (cold drawing) With proper subsequent processing, the tube can be cold-formed (e.g. bent, expanded) within certain limits.|
|Annealed||GBK||After the final cold-forming process the tubes are annealed in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.|
|归一化||NBK||The tubes are annealed above the upper transformation point in a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum.|
The general cold strip mills, volume should go through continuous annealing (CAPL unit) to eliminate cold hardening and rolling stress, or batch annealing reach the mechanical properties of the corresponding standard specifies. Cold rolled steel surface quality, appearance, dimensional accuracy better than hot-rolled plate, and right-rolled thin product thickness is about 0.18mm, so the majority of users favor.
Cold rolled steel coil substrate products deep processing of high value-added products. Such as electro-galvanized, hot dip galvanized, electro-galvanized fingerprint resistant, painted steel roll damping composite steel, PVC laminating steel plates, etc., so that the excellent quality of these products has a beautiful, high resistance to corrosion, has been widely used.
Cold rolled steel coil finishing after annealing, cut the head, tail, trimming, flattening, smooth, heavy volume, or longitudinal clipboard. Cold-rolled products are widely used in automobile manufacturing, household electrical appliances, instruments, switches, buildings, office furniture and other industries. Steel plate strapping package weight of 3 to 5 tons. Flat sub-volume typically 3 to 10 tons / volume. Coil diameter 6m.
Bare packing/bundle packing/crate packing/wooden protection at the both sides of tubes and suitably protected for sea-worthly delivery or as requested.
There are probably hundreds of different methods for packing a pipe, and most of them have merit, but there are two principles that are vital for any method to work prevent rusting and Sea transportation security.
Our packing can meet any needs of the customers.
Our team of experienced sales specialists proudly partners with gas and chemical processors, power generation plants, oil refineries, and related industries to offer piping components and value-added services.
Alloy steels are made by combining carbon steel with one or several alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum. These metals are added to produce specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. The elements are added in varying proportions (or combinations) making the material take on different aspects such as increased hardness, increased corrosion resistance, increased strength, improved formability (ductility); the weldability can also change.
|Alloying Elements||Effect on the Properties|
|Chromium||Increases Resistance to corrosion and oxidation. Increases hardenability and wear resistance. Increases high temperature strength.|
|Nickel||Increases hardenability. Improves toughness. Increases impact strength at low temperatures.|
|Molybdenum||提高坚固性，高温硬度和耐磨性。Enhances the effects of other alloying elements. Eliminate temper brittleness in steels. Increases high temperature strength.|
|Manganese||Increases hardenability. Combines with sulfur to reduce its adverse effects.|
|Titanium||Strongest carbide former. Added to stainless steel to prevent precipitation of chromium carbide.|
|Silicon||Removes oxygen in steel making. Improves toughness. Increases hardness ability|
|Boron||Increases hardenability. Produces fine grain size.|
|Cobalt||Increases heat and wear resistance.|
|Tungsten||Increases hardness at elevated temperatures. Refines grain size.|